Guidelines on the prevention and control of Coronavirus disease (Covid-19)
PREVENTING NOVEL CORONAVIRUS INFECTION IN WORKPLACES AND TRIPS TO THE OFFICE
01 What to Do on the Way to Work
On the way to work, it is necessary to properly wear a disposable medical mask. People are advised to avoid using mass transit for trips to workplaces such as offices and to walk, bike, motorcycle, drive a personal vehicle or take a shuttle bus instead. Those who must use mass transit to go to work must wear a medical mask during the entire trip. During their trip, passengers should avoid touching objects on buses (or other mass transit) as much as possible.
02 What to Do in Office Buildings
Before entering office buildings, workers should voluntarily accept a body temperature check. People whose temperatures are normal can enter buildings and wash their hands in restrooms. Any person whose temperature is over 37.2 degrees Celsius will not be admitted into an office building and should return home to be placed under medical observation and rest. If necessary, the person should see a doctor.
03 What to Do in Offices
To maintain indoor air quality, it is advised to open office windows at least three times a day for 20 to 30 minutes each time. While windows are open, people should keep warm by wearing suitable clothes. People should maintain a distance of at least one metre between each other. When many people are in the same office, everyone should wear a medical mask. People need to drink water frequently, and should also wash their hands properly in six steps before eating and after going to the toilet. When receiving visitors, both workers and visitors should wear medical mask.
04 What to Do at Meetings
Attendees are advised to wear masks and wash their hands for disinfection before meetings. All attendees should keep a distance at least one metre between each other. It is also necessary to reduce the time and frequency of meetings. If the meeting goes long, windows should be opened once. After the meeting ends, the venue and furniture must be disinfected. Tea sets should be immersed in boiling water for disinfection.
05 What to Do in Dining Halls
People should avoid having dinner in groups. Dining halls should be disinfected once daily, and all tables and seats in the halls should be disinfected after each use. All tableware must be disinfected with ultra-high-temperature processing. Kitchens should be clean and dry. Mixing raw and cooked food is forbidden. Raw meat should not be eaten. Instead, meat should be cooked. People are advised to maintain a nutritious diet with a light taste.
06 What to Do on Trips Back Home
Before putting on and after taking off disposable medical masks, please wash hands for disinfection. After getting home, please disinfect mobile phones and keys with antiseptic wipes or 75 percent alcohol medical solution. Keeps home ventilated and clean. Please also avoid gatherings.
07 What to Do When Shopping in Public
When going outside, please wear medical mask and avoid crowded places. People should keep a distance at least one metre between each other. If possible, please do not stay in public areas for long.
08 Exercising During Office Breaks
People are advised to practise proper exercises and sports to maintain good physical health and immunity. Over-exercise should be avoided, as it may reduce immunity.
09 What to Do in Public Areas
Please disinfect lobbies, passages, conference rooms, lifts, stairs, restrooms and other public areas daily. If possible, please use antiseptic spray for disinfection. Use separate cleaning tools for different areas and avoid mixing them together.
10 What to Do during Business Trips
Please wipes insides of special vehicles and their handles with 75 percent medical alcohol solution once daily. When riding in vehicles, please wear a mask. It is advised to wipe the vehicles' interiors and handles with 75 percent medical alcohol solution again after each use.
11 What Should Indoor Staff Do
Service, security and cleaning staff need wear masks and keep a proper distance from other people during work. Dining halls' buyers and suppliers should wear mask and disposable rubber gloves to avoid touching raw meats with their hands. After taking off gloves, workers should wash their hands immediately. Cleaning staff also need to wear disposable rubber gloves during work. After work, they should wash their hands for disinfection. Security staff must wear masks and conscientiously ask about and register visitors' physical condition. If any abnormal issues appear, security staff should report them to their management.
12 What to Do at Office Reception Desks
At reception desks, workers should wear masks. Before entering office buildings, visitors shall accept a body temperature check, detail their contact with residents of Hubei Province and be candid about recent symptoms such as fever, cough and difficulty breathing. Only people who do not have these contacts or symptoms and have a temperature under 37.2 degrees C will be allowed to enter office buildings.
13 How to Pass Around Paper Documents
Before and after passing paper documents, please wash your hands. While passing documents, please wear a mask.
14 How to Disinfect Phones
It is advised to wipe telephones with 75 percent medical alcohol solution twice daily. If the telephones are frequently used, please wipe them four times every day.
15 How to Disinfect Air Conditioners
If central air conditioning systems are in normal operation, please regularly disinfect the air supply and return vents. If 2019-nCoV infections appear when a central fresh air system is in normal operation, the system need not be immediately turned off. After everyone is evacuated from the building, the system’s branch exhaust ducts should be closed and the exhaust system should be turned off after a short period of operation. Next, please disinfect the system. All air-systems with return air should have their return air section turned off and only operate their fresh air section.
16 How to Dispose of Used masks
During the spread of 2019-nCoV, people should wash their hands before putting on and after taking off masks and should discard used medical masks into trash bins. Please disinfect trash bins with 75 percent medical alcohol solution and chlorine-based disinfectants twice daily.
01 Protecting Yourself from COVID-19
Frequently wash your hands. Please wash your hands with tap water and bar or liquid soap and dry your hands with disposable paper towels or clean towels. After touching respiratory secretions (for example, after sneezing), please immediately wash your hands. Maintain good respiratory health habits. When coughing or sneezing, please cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or clean cloth. After coughing or sneezing, please wash your hands. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with your hands. Improve your physical health and immunity. Maintain a balanced diet, do proper exercises, maintain adequate work and rest time and avoid excessive fatigue. Maintain a clean environment and proper ventilation. Open windows for ventilation at least three times daily, and keep them open for 20 or 30 minutes each time. When outdoor air quality is not good, the frequency and time of opening windows can be reduced accordingly. Avoid crowds or gatherings and keep away from respiratory disease patients. People with respiratory symptoms such as cough, runny nose or fever should be quarantined at home. If a fever cannot be brought down over a long period, the person should see a doctor.
02 How Does Washing Hands Prevent Infectious Respiratory Disease?
Washing hands is the most effective measure to prevent diarrhoea and infectious respiratory diseases. The Chinese Centre of Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organisation, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CPD) in the United States and other authoritative health agencies recommend washing hands with clear water (flowing water) and soap.
03 Six Steps for Washing Hands
First, rub hands palm on palm (place hands together and rub them against each other five times)
Second, rub fingers and palms and the spaces between the fingers (put the palm of one hand over the back of the other with interlaced fingers and rub each hand five times)
Third, interface fingers and rub hands together (rub five times palm to palm with interlaced fingers)
Fourth, rub the fingertips of each hand on the palm of the opposite hand (rub five times for each hand)
Fifth, rub each thumb in a rotating manner five times Sixth, interlock fingers and rub the back of the knuckles against the palm of the opposite hand five times for each hand
04 When Is It Necessary to Wash Hands?
- Before and after passing paper documents
- After coughing or sneezing
- Before, during and after preparing and cooking food
- Before eating
- After going to the restroom
- When hands are dirty
- After touching other people
- After touching animals
- After arriving home from outside
05 What to Do If Water Is Not Available during a Trip?
People can use alcohol-based disinfectants to clean their hands. A 75 percent alcohol solution can inactivate 2019-nCov. Therefore, alcohol-based disinfectants can be alternatives to soap and flowing water.
01 How to Select a Mask
Option I: Disposable medical mask. Change to a new mask after wearing one for four consecutive hours or if the mask is contaminated or becomes wet.
Option II: N95 medical protective masks. Change to a new mask after wearing one for four consecutive hours or if the mask is contaminated os becomes wet. Cotton and sponge masks are not recommended.
02 How to Correctly Use a Mask
A mask’s darker-coloured side should face outside. On the upper part of the medical mask is a metal piece that can be moulded to fit the shape of the wearer’s nose. A medical mask’s light-coloured side should face inside; the side with the metal piece is the upper side of the mask. After indentifying the mask’s outside, inside, upper and lower parts, people should wash their hands before putting the straps of the mask over their ears. Last, the wearer should press the metal piece to make it fit the shape of his or her nose and stretch the lower part of the mask to cover his or her nose, mouth and chin.
03 Wearing Masks for People with Special Needs
Pregnant women are advised to select comfortable masks based on their physical condition. If elderly people and people with chronic heart or lung diseases feel uncomfortable when wearing mask, they should ask for instructions from a doctor. Children should wear suitable child-sized face masks.
PREVENTING CORONAVIRUS INFECTION AT HOME
01 Preventing Coronavirus Infection at Home
Please increase health awareness and improve immunity by exercising properly and getting sufficient sleep.
Please maintain personal hygiene, cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when coughing and sneezing, frequently wash your hands and do not touch your eyes, nose or mouth with dirty hands.
Please maintain indoor ventilation and sanitation.
Please avoid close contact with people with respiratory disease symptoms (such as fever, cough or sneezing).
Please avoid crowded and enclosed places. People who need to enter such places must wear masks.
Please avoid touching wild animals, livestock and poultry.
Please maintain safe dietary habits and eat thoroughly cooked meat and eggs.
Please pay close attention to symptoms such as fever and cough. If symptoms appear, please see a nearby doctor.
02 How to Eat during the Spread of COVID-19
Please do not eat meat or by-products from sick animals. Buy fresh, chilled meat from legal distribution channels, and eat thoroughly cooked meat and eggs. Please separate cutting boards and knives for raw food and cooked foods. Please wash your hands between preparing raw food and cooking it. Even in epidemic-affected areas, meat can be safely eaten if it is thoroughly cooked and properly handled during food preparation.
03 Preventing Coronavirus Infection in Public Areas
Please do not touch livestock and wild animals without taking protective measures.
Please maintain indoor ventilation in office areas. Wearing masks can reduce the risk of viral infections in crowded places such as supermarkerts, buses, subway trains and airplanes. When coughing or sneezing, please cover your nose and mouth with tissue, paper towels, sleeves or forearms. Please discard used paper towels into closed trash bins. After coughing or sneezing, please use soap and clear water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer. After returning home from outside, please immediately wash your hands. Anyone who has respiratory disease symptoms, especially a prolonged fever, should go see a doctor. Parties and gatherings should be avoided during the epidemic period.
INFORMATION IN COVID-19
01 What is 2019-nCoV?
2019-nCoV is a novel coronavirus extracted from the lower respiratory tract of patients infected with cryptogenic organising pneumonia. It was named 2019-nCoV by the WHO.
02 Who is Vulnerable to 2019-nCoV?
Most people are vulnerable to 2019-nCoV. Novel coronavirus can affect people with low or normal immunity. People with low immunity such as the elderly, pregnant women and patients with chronic diseases are prone to severe acute symptoms after contracting novel coronavirus.
03 What are the Routes of 2019-nCoV Transmission?
2019-nCoV is mainly transmitted via droplets, touching (including self-infection caused by contaminated hands) and short-distance transmission of respiratory aerosols of different sizes. Currently, 2019-nCoV is mainly spread via droplets.
04 Is 2019-nCoV Transmitted Between Humans?
Yes. Based on certain cases, the virus can be spread by human-to-human transmission. To some extent, it may be spread within communities.
05 What is Droplet Transmission?
Droplets are defined as water-based particles with a diameter of more than 5 micrometres, and can enter susceptible mucous membranes within a certain distance (generally one metre). How are droplets produced? Coughing, sneezing or talking. During invasive respiratory therapies, such as aspiration of sputum, inserting a trachea cannula, turning over a patient’s body, patting a patient’s back to trigger coughing, or CPR.
06 What is Contact Infection?
Direct contact: Pathogens directly come into contact with people’s mucous membranes or skin. Blood or bodily fluids containing blood-borne pathogens enter the body via mucous membranes or damaged skin. Direct contact with secretions containing pathogens may result infection.
07 Who are Close Contacts?
Close Contacts are people who have lived or stayed with people with confirmed or highly suspected 2019-nCoV cases in the previous 14 days. These include colleagues and classmates in the same office, classroom or dormitory as well as passengers on the same airplane. Other close contacts refer to caregivers and passengers sharing taxis or lifts with patients infected with 2019-nCoV.
08 Notes for Close Contacts of 2019-nCoV Patients
All close contacts (including doctors and nurses) of highly suspected 2019-nCoV patients must undergo a 14-day medical observation period. The period starts from the last day of close contact with the patient. If the contacts have any symptoms, such as fever, cough or diarrhoea, they should see a doctor immediately.
09 Advice on Monitoring Close Contacts
If close contacts develop symptoms, they should report this information to the hospital before going in person. En route to the hospital, patients should wear medical masks. When traveling to the hospital, people potentially infected with 2019-nCoV should avoid mass transit and instead call an ambulance or ride in a private vehicle. If possible, please open the windows in the vehicle. Individuals in close contact with disease should keep their respiratory tracts and hands clean. While in public or in the hospital, they should keep at least one metre away from other people. Any surfaces contaminated by secretions from respiratory tract or bodily fluids should be cleaned and disinfected with diluted bleach and disinfectants.
10 What are the Clinical Symptoms of COVID-19?
COVID-19 patients have symptoms such as mild cough, fatigue, difficulty in breathing and diarrhoea in addition to fever. Some patients suffer from headaches, heart palpitations, chest distress, conjunctivitis and mild pain in the limbs and back, but have no fever. Some patients have difficulty breathing one week after infection. A majority of patients can get better after accepting medical treatment, while few patients suffer from severe acute symptoms or even die of the disease.
11 How to Identify and Observe COVID-19 Cases
Epidemiological history: Within two weeks before onset of symptoms, patients had experiences visiting or staying in Wuhan or had a contact with respiratory disease patients from the city. Doctors should ascertain whether the patients live in an affected community, were infected by others during gatherings or may have infected other people. Doctors should also find out whether the patients have visited relevant markets, especially agricultural product markets. Clinical signs: Patient has fever and/or imaging features of viral pneumonia. In early stages of infection patients will have normal or lower amounts of total white blood cells or a decreased lymphocyte count. Based on medical observations, collect sputum and throat swabs to conduct viral nucleic acid test. Diagnosis will be carried out according to the results of these tests.
12 What Measures Should Be Taken to Prevent an Control COVID-19?
Standard prevention measures; Airborne transmission prevention measures; Contact and droplet prevention measures: frequent washing of hands and wearing of masks; Opening windows for ventilation Cleaning and disinfection: 2019-nCoV is sensitive to heat and be inactivated by soaking items in hot water (at least 56 degrees Celsius) for 30 minutes, or by use of 75 percent alcohol solution, chlorine-based disinfectants and fat solvents such as chloroform.